Fever: Jwara(fever) is known by various synonyms such as vikara, roga, vyaadhi and aatank. The source of origin of fever are the (derenged) doshas of body and mind because fever doesnt arise in the person devoid of the same. Jwara is related to the god of death and is known as Kshay(wasting), tamas(causing loss of consiousness), Papmaa(Sinful) and Mrutu(causing death) because it leads the person suffering from their own deeds to fiveness(death when only five mahabhutaas remain bereft of the consciousness).
Effect of fever: Effects of fever are pyrexia, anorexia, thirst, bodyache and distress in cardiac region. It is the great darkenss during birth and death.
Prodromal symptoms of fever: Lassitude, congested eyes, yawning, heaviness, exhaustion, unstable desire and aversion to fire, sun, air and water, indigestion, distaste in mouth, loss of strength and complexion and slight derangement in behaviour.
Character of Fever: The specific character of fever is excessive heat in body as well as mind because there is nobody who is not heated by the rising fever.
Treatment of fever: 1)In fever, first of all, lightening therapy is recommended except in that caused by wasting, vata, fear, anger, passion, anxiety and exertion.
2) In acute fever, one should avoid day-sleep, bath,massage, solid diet,sexual intercourse, anger, wind, exercise and also extracts of drug.
3) In acute fever
लंघनं स्वेदनं कालो यवाग्वस्तिक्तको रसः I
पाचनान्यविपक्वानां दोषाणां तरुणे ज्वरे II च. चि. अ. ३/१४२
In acute fever, lightening, sweating, time, gruels and bitters are digestive for immature doshas. water boiled with mustaa, parpataka, ushira, chandana, udichya and shunthi and self cooled should be administered to alleviate thirst and fever. In fever which is predominantly caused by aggrevated kapha situated in aamashay(stomach) with tendency to come out and the patient is fit for vomitting the doshas should be eliminated by administering emetics.
After emesis and lightening the patient should be provided with gruels in time cooked with respective drugs starting with scum-gruel in the beginnig till the fever comes down or for six days. By this agni is stimulated like fire by fuel. Dueto medication and lightness, thye are appetizer, carminative for for wind, urine, faeces and doshas; due to being hot and liquid they are diaphoretic; due to being liquid theyalleviate thirst, due to being nutrient they provide strength; durt to being laxative they produce lightness and due to being suitable in fevers they act as antipyretic. Gruel is not advised in fever associated with alcoholism, alcoholic addicts, in summer, having predominance of pitta and kapha or with upward internal heamorrhage(heamoptysis, epistaxis etc.In case of fever, after six days have passed, the physician after giving light diet should administer digestive or pacifying extract of drugs.
One should eat light food along with beneficial vegetable soups, soured or unsoured, or soup of the meat of wild animals till ten days for alleviation of fever. If the fever doesnt subside even by these measures, one should pacify it by purgation if the patient has unimpaired strength, musculature and agni. In patients reduced by fever neither emesis nor purgation is beneficial. In such cases, the excrements should be eliminated by adequate intake of milk or administration of non-unctous enema.
2) Chronic fever-, when kapha and pitta are reduced, appetite is firm and stool is rough and constipated, unctous enema should be applied. The physician should advise massage, anointing, sprinkling and bath, cold or hot, as necessary. By these, the fever situated in external passage is pacified, organs get pleasure and atrength and complexion are promoted. For the patients of fever, the old cereals of red shali, shashtika etc. are recommended for use in the forms of gruel, boiled rice and parched paddy which alleviate fever. Antipyretic extracts useful to alleviate five types of fever such as remittent, double quotidian, quotidian, tertian and quartan.
1) Indrayava, patola leaves, katurohini
2) Patola, sarivaa, mustaa,pathaa, katurohini
3) Nimb, patola, triphala, mrudwika,musta and kutaja
4) Kirattikta, guduchi, chandana and sunthi
5) Guduchi, amalaka and musta
The patient of fever having plenty of impurity should be subject to timely evacuative therapy, upwards and downwards. Madanphala and pippali or indrayava or madhuka should be administered with hot water as emeric for alleviation of fever. In fever, emesis is prescribed with honey-water, sugarcane juice, saline water, wine or saturating drinks. Juice of grapes and amalaka fruit acts as purgative as well as anti-pyretic. Similar is the juice of amlaka fried with ghee. One suffering from fever should take powder of trivrutta mixed with honey and ghee or decoction of triphala adding with honey and ghee, or aaragvadha with milk or grape juice, or trivrutta or trayamaan with milk. One becomes free from fever by taking haritaki with grapes or grape juice with hot milk.
If the impurity is located in pakvaashay(colon), one should apply the non-unctous and unctuous enema useful in fever. Milk is an excellent pacifier of all types of chronic fever. That should be taken hot or cold and boiled with drugs like-gokshura, bala, kantakari, shunthi, mrudwika etc. In case of fever, with burning sensation, the physician should prescribed ghee washed hundred times and chandanadi tailam for massage. Sprinkling and bath with honey, sour gruel, milk, curd, ghee and water alleviate the hot fever quickly due to being cold in touch. One suffering from burning sensation should lie down comfortably on the bed covered with the cold leaves of pushkara, lotus and water lily, banana and clean silk cloth cooled with sandal water or in water-cooled chamber or a room sprinkled with cold water. He should also have the pleasant contact of gold, conch, coral, jewels and pearls cooled with sandal water. He should be fanned with garlands, flowers, blue water lily or lotus and other various fans carrying cool air and showering sandal water. Rivers, tanks, lotus leaves and clean ponds which pacify burning sensation, thirst, malaise and fever should be used for bath. Such persons should be entertained with cold food and drinks, gardens; breeze and moon rays pacify the fever with burning sensation.
Fever which doesn’t subside by treatment with cold, hot, unctuous, non-unctuous etc. and has entered into shakha(rakta etc.) is treated with blood-letting. Chronic fever continues because of the debility of bodily dhatus, hence it should be managed with the diet promoting strength and body-bulk. Fever caused by cursing, exorcism, contact of evil spirits is treated with divine therapy. Fever caused by passion, grief and fear are pacified by soothing talks, meeting with the beloved, alleviation of vayu and inducing exhilaration.
Patient should be taken as free from fever when exhaustion and pyrexia are gone, there is no distress, senses are clear and the psyche has revived normalcy. Fever is the king of all diseases, destroyer of all creatures and severe, hence a physician should be particularly cautious in treating it. Thus Ayurvedic scholars have explained the successful therapeutic management of fever is described.